Long long ago I was treated to watching expert witnesses on direct and cross-examination explain the technical differences between warning, notification and alerting. Each has its own research findings and milieu. Much to my surprise shortly after 9/11/01 an elaborate public-private partnership was created, substantially federally funded to develop a National Warning Strategy which is in fact available and was issued in 2004. That document is available several places including me.
When I found out about the PPWC (Partnership for Public Warning Commission) I wrote a long letter to the head of that organization whose name at the moment is forgotten telling him of the various research materials available. He called to thank me and I ended up forwarding several boxes of materials on the concept of warning. Apparently some of my ideas appeared without attribution in the final National Strategy document. AOK with me.
One of the documents that I forwarded I still have and now provide for the blog readers. I think most will find it interesting and comparing with the National Strategy arguably documents that we (the US) does not really have a warning strategy. Perhaps it is the eye of the beholder.
Here is the document furnished the Partnerhip:
LEGAL REFERENCES TO WARNING, THREATS, AND PUBLIC INFORMATION
IN THE ROBERT T. STAFFORD ACT (CODIFIED AS CHAPTER 68 OF TITLE 42 OF THE U.S. CODE)
SUBCHAPTER II -- DISASTER PREPAREDNESS ASSISTANCE
(a) The President shall insure that all appropriate Federal agencies are prepared to issue warnings of disasters to State and local officials.
(b) The President shall direct appropriate Federal agencies to provide technical assistance to State and local governments to insure that timely and effective disaster warning is provided.
(c) The President is authorized to utilize or to make available to Federal, State, and local agencies the facilities of the civil defense communications system established and maintained pursuant to §611(d) of the Act [42 U.S.C. §5196(d)], or any other Federal communication system for the purpose of providing warning to governmental authorities and the civilian population in areas endangered by disasters.
(d) The President is authorized to enter into agreements with the officers or agents of any private or commercial communications systems who volunteer the use of their systems on a reimbursable or nonreimbursable basis for the purpose of providing warning to governmental authorities and the civilian population endangered by disasters.
SUBCHAPTER IV -- MAJOR DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
GENERAL FEDERAL ASSISTANCE
(42 U.S.C. §5170a)
§402. In any major disaster, the President may ---
. . . . . .
(3) provide technical and advisory assistance to affected State and local government for -
. . . . . .
(B) issuance of warnings of risks of hazards; . . .
(42 U.S.C. §5170b)
§403 (a) In General. Federal agencies may on the direction of the President, provide assistance to meeting immediate threats to life and property resulting from a major disaster, as follows:
. . . . . .
(3) Work and Services to Save Lives and Protect property. Performing on public or private lands or waters any work or services essential to saving lives and protecting and preserving property or public health and safety, including ---
. . . . . .
(F) warning of further risks and hazards;
(G) dissemination of public information and assistance regarding health and safety measures;
(H) provision of technical advice to State and local governments on disaster management and control; and
(I) reduction of immediate threats to life, property, and public health and safety.
(42 U.S.C. §5185)
§418. The President is authorized during, or in anticipation of, an emergency or major disaster to establish temporary communications systems and to make such communications available to State and local government officials and other persons as he deems appropriate.
TITLE VI -- EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
SUBTITLE A -- POWERS AND DUTIES
§611(d) Communications and Warnings.
The Director may make appropriate provision for necessary emergency preparedness communications and for dissemination of warnings to the civilian population of a hazard.
. . . . . . .
§611(g) Public Dissemination of Emergency Preparedness Information.
The Director may publicly disseminate appropriate emergency preparedness information by all appropriate means.